Research By Year


The Effect of β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Trained Athletes.

In this study HMB was supplemented in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design in 58 highly trained males.  To qualify the subjects had to have a minimum of 5 years training and a minimum of 4 sessions weekly in their sport discipline.  The authors concluded that HMB had advantageous changes in increasing fat free mass and reducing fat mass, while also improving indicators of aerobic metabolism such as VO2max, time to ventilatory threshold and power at ventilator threshold.

Conversion of leucine to β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate by α-keto isocaproate dioxygenase is required for a potent stimulation of protein synthesis in L6 rat myotubes

This significant study performed in skeletal muscle cells shows that leucine’s stimulation of protein synthesis in muscle is through conversion to HMB.  While previous studies had speculated that much of the effect of leucine was due to its downstream metabolite HMB, this study is the first to actually demonstrate this effect in living cells.

β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate attenuates cytokine response during sustained military training.

Military training is some of the most strenuous training an individual can undergo.  Sleep deprivation coupled with a high level of continuous activity and heavy physical load carriage not only wears down the soldier’s muscular strength, but can also invoke an inflammatory immune response stimulating catabolic processes in muscles.  In this study of soldiers undergoing military training, HMB free acid supplementation (BetaTOR) decreased TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8, key inflammatory markers. This decrease in inflammation likely resulted in the increase in muscle quality the authors also measured.  In conclusion, BetaTOR supplementation reduced the inflammatory response and allowed the soldiers to maintain muscle quality during the high intensity military training.