fbpx

Featured

2017

The Effect of β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Trained Athletes.

The effects of HMB supplementation in highly-trained combat sport athletes (wrestlers, judokas, and Brazilian jiu-jitsu) was studied.  The athletes maintained their usual daily training and dietary regimens during the placebo-controlled crossover study. HMB supplementation resulted in an increase in lean body mass and decrease in fat mass compared with placebo supplementation.  In addition HMB supplementation resulted in increased aerobic capacity and anaerobic peak power. The authors concluded that for combat sport athletes, HMB promotes advantageous changes in body composition and aerobic and anaerobic capacity.

Impact of the calcium form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate upon human skeletal muscle protein metabolism.

The authors studied muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB) in young males supplemented with CaHMB.  Similar to their previous study with HMB free acid, CaHMB provided a comparable stimulation of MPS and suppression of MPB. The pro-anabolic properties of CaHMB were shown to include activation of mTORc1.  Therefore, both CaHMB and HMB free acid have similar effects on muscle protein turnover despite the differences reported in bioavailability.

Combined effect of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 and HMB supplementation on muscle integrity and cytokine response during intense military training.

Soldiers undergoing intense military training were supplemented for 40 days with either a placebo, HMB, or HMB plus probiotic (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30).  While HMB and HMB plus probiotic attenuated the inflammatory responses (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, CX3CL1, and TNF-α), HMB combined with the probiotic attenuated the inflammatory marker IL-10 and resulted in improved muscle integrity over HMB alone.  Therefore combining the probiotic with HMB may be more effective in maintaining muscle integrity than HMB alone during intense military training.

2016

The Effect of β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Trained Athletes.

In this study HMB was supplemented in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design in 58 highly trained males.  To qualify the subjects had to have a minimum of 5 years training and a minimum of 4 sessions weekly in their sport discipline.  The authors concluded that HMB had advantageous changes in increasing fat free mass and reducing fat mass, while also improving indicators of aerobic metabolism such as VO2max, time to ventilatory threshold and power at ventilator threshold.

Conversion of leucine to β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate by α-keto isocaproate dioxygenase is required for a potent stimulation of protein synthesis in L6 rat myotubes

This significant study performed in skeletal muscle cells shows that leucine’s stimulation of protein synthesis in muscle is through conversion to HMB.  While previous studies had speculated that much of the effect of leucine was due to its downstream metabolite HMB, this study is the first to actually demonstrate this effect in living cells.

β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate attenuates cytokine response during sustained military training.

Military training is some of the most strenuous training an individual can undergo.  Sleep deprivation coupled with a high level of continuous activity and heavy physical load carriage not only wears down the soldier’s muscular strength, but can also invoke an inflammatory immune response stimulating catabolic processes in muscles.  In this study of soldiers undergoing military training, HMB free acid supplementation (BetaTOR) decreased TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8, key inflammatory markers. This decrease in inflammation likely resulted in the increase in muscle quality the authors also measured.  In conclusion, BetaTOR supplementation reduced the inflammatory response and allowed the soldiers to maintain muscle quality during the high intensity military training.