Research By Year


Influence of HMB supplementation and resistance training on cytokine responses to resistance exercise.

This 12-week study was conducted in college aged-men undergoing a resistance training program and supplemented with HMB (plus arginine and glutamine).   At baseline, 6, and 12 weeks an acute exercise protocol was administered. Similar to another recent study by Hoffman et al with BetaTOR HMB, HMB supplementation attenuated the inflammatory markers interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) after the acute exercise protocol.

High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy- β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds

This study was conducted with college-aged men and women supplemented with HMB free acid (BetaTOR).  Subjects underwent High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) 3 times per week for 4 weeks. HMB free acid supplementation improved the gains in VO2peak and ventilatory threshold compared with placebo supplementation.

The effects of 12 weeks of beta‐hydroxy‐beta‐methylbutyrate free acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance‐trained individuals: a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study

This 12 week study in highly trained men, undergoing a rigorous periodized training program, demonstrated that supplementation with HMB in free acid form resulted in increased gains in strength, power, and lean mass over placebo and training alone.  Additionally, the researchers conducted a 2 week overreaching protocol in weeks 9 and 10 to simulate overtraining. HMB free acid minimized or eliminated losses in strength and power during this period and allowed for improved recovery after intense training.

Subchronic toxicity study of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid in Sprague–Dawley rats

A 91-day subchronic toxicity study was conducted in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats following FDA Redbook protocols.  Rats were assigned to HMBFA treatments at either 0, 0.8, 1.6, or 4% of the diet by weight. The no-observed-adverse-event-level (NOAEL) was determined to be 4% of the diet, which corresponds to an intake of 2.48 and 2.83 g/kg BW d-1 in the males and females, respectively.  (Like an average human consuming about 25 g per day.)

Effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid and cold water immersion on post-exercise markers of muscle damage.

This study examined the effects of HMB free acid (HMB-FA) supplementation and cold water immersion (CWI) on recovery in 40 resistance-training men post high-intensity lower body training. HMB-FA and HMB-FA combined with CWI resulted in significantly lower C-reactive protein levels during recovery. More importantly HMB free acid combined with CWI resulted in a significant improvement in power per repetition. The authors concluded that HMB-FA combined with CWI improved performance recovery after the acute bout of exercise.

Effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid and cold water immersion on expression of CR3 and MIP-1β following resistance exercise.

In this study the effects of HMB free acid supplementation and cold water immersion (CWI) on the expression of complement receptor type 3 (CR3) and the concentration macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β) were studied after intense resistance exercise.  It was clear that both CWI and HMB free acid attenuated CR3 expression. While these were not correlated with an objective measure of improved recovery, the researchers concluded that HMB free acid modulates the inflammatory response, which could help the muscle recover faster.

β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and prevention of muscle wasting

This brief discussion paper reviews some of the mechanisms associated with the prevention of muscle loss and wasting by supplementation with HMB.